The London Metropolitan is the first in the world. The modern London subway system is one of the world ' s largest, and it is the fourth longest in Seoul, Beijing and Shanghai.
In the nineteenth century, the British capital, as in some of the world ' s major cities, is facing an urgent issue of overloading central roads. In 1843, the Marc Brunel project, a French engineer, laid a tunnel under the Thamza, which for the first time in the world showed the direction of the subway. The first tunnels of the sub-ground were built in a tranche way, when they were digging at a depth of about 10 metres, on the bottom of the railway tracks which were later bricked.
Looking back in the past, we note that the starting point in the construction of the subway was invented in 1814 by an English engineer, Mark Brunelem, a tunnel board, which is subsequently the most effective metro-building tool in the world. This is the idea of Brunell to be a marine mollusc shrimp capable of drilling holes in the debris of the sinking ships. In a patent issued to Brunell in 1818, there was a mechanical copy of this worm to drill tunnels with a prefabricated tubing unit spiraled. That was the design of future mechanized shields.
In 1814, the Russian Emperor Alexander I, as the winner of Napoleon, was honoured in London. The Russian self-defendant was represented by the most outstanding English figures, including Marc Brunel, a member of the Royal London Society. As a result of this meeting, an Englishman was contracted to design a highway crossing through Nev in Petersburg. Started in 1814, he handed over two options to Russian customers in the early 20s: bridge and tunnel. Regrettably, the genius invention of the English engineer has not been able to live on Russian soil: by failing to support the deceased emperor, Brunell has redesigned the drawings for the Thames. It is this tunnel that has demonstrated to the moderners the convenience and reliability of the underground message.